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糖尿病:护士的作用

编辑:语际翻译     2009-12-20         转载请注明来自  语际翻译公司 http://www.scientrans.com

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  The target for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for those with type 1 diabetes is 7.5% (for type 1) and below 7% for those with type 2. Blood pressure is known to be a factor in diabetic complications and should be below 140/80mmHg for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes - the lower the better, but without feeling the symptoms of hypotension, such as dizziness. Total cholesterol should be below 5 mmol/L, with an HDL of greater than 1.0, and LDL less than 3. If there are complications, these targets may be set even more tightly to prevent their worsening. Patients need to know what the recommended levels are for these tests so they can ask for the results of the investigations and make sense of the information they are given. In this way they will be able to see for themselves if they need more treatment and whether or not they need to make changes to lifestyle and food choices.

  一型糖尿病患者的糖化血红蛋白目标是7.5%,二型为低于7%.血压是导致糖尿病并发症的一个因素,两种糖尿病的血压都应低于140/80mmHg,且越低越好。当然应以不出现低血压症状为宜,如头晕。全胆固醇应低于5mmol/L,HDL高于1.0,LDL低于3.如有并发症,制定目标时应更加仔细,以防止加剧。病人应知道这些化验的建议值以便索要检查结果,弄懂信息意义。这样,他们就能自己清楚是否需要更多的治疗,是否需要改变生活方式及饮食。

  Screening for complications 并发症的筛检

  Routine screening for diabetic complications is often the nurse's responsibility. This will include urine testing for protein as a check on renal function, taking blood for lipid estimations, measuring blood pressure, examining the eyes and the feet.

  糖尿病的常规筛检通常是护士的责任,包括肾功能的蛋白尿检,血脂检查,测血压及检查眼睛与双脚。

  Screening for retinopathy: This is performed when pupils are dilated, either by fundoscopy or retinal photography. The nurse's role is to explain what will happen during the procedure and what the findings mean. The nurse may also measure visual acuity. Some patients may need to be referred for laser photocoagulation, and again, the nurse should be able to offer information and reassurance.

  视网膜病筛检:眼底镜或视网膜镜检查,扩张瞳孔。护士的作用是解释操作时会发生的情况与检查结果的意义。护士还可以检查视敏度。有的病人可能需要进行激光凝固,因此,护士应能提供信息,安慰病人。

  Screening for neuropathy: Patients with normal circulation, gait, and vision are at low risk of neuropathy. Advice about foot hygiene and the wearing of sensible shoes should be offered to these patients. When patients cannot feel their feet and their circulation is impaired through peripheral vascular disease, the risk of neuropathy is greatly increased. These patients will need to be advised not to rely on how their feet feel but to look at them every day to check for any damage and to seek assistance urgently if a problem occurs. This may need to be done by someone else if vision is a problem. Putting a mirror on the floor can be helpful for self-examination.

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