Active center.  活性中心 A specialized re...
高效液相色谱法:high performance liquid chromatography,...
acetyl CoA / 乙酰辅酶A  一种小分子的水溶性代谢产物,由与辅酶A 相连的乙酰基组...



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Active center.
 A specialized region of an enzyme where the enzyme interacts with the substrate and catalyzes its conversion to products. Many aminoacyl residues contribute to the active center.
Adenylyl cyclase.
 An enzyme that catalyzes the synthetic reaction of cyclic AMP from ATP in response to hormones such as epinephrine and glucagon.
Alanine-glucose cycle.
 A cooperative pathway between liver and muscle in which the ammonia and carbon from amino acid metabolism are removed from the muscle as alanine, taken up by the liver, transaminated to pyruvate, converted into glucose, and shipped out back to the muscle.
 Albumin makes up 50% to 55% of the proteins of plasma and is thought to be the main contributor to osmotic pressure of blood. Another important function is that albumin has very broad and non-specific binding properties.
Allosteric enzyme.
 Allosteric enzymes are enzymes whose activity at the catalytic site may be modulated by the presence of allosteric effectors at an allosteric site. Allosteric means “occupy another space”, so an allosteric effector occupy another space, giving an effect on enzymes.
Allosteric regulation.
 A type of enzyme regulation in which an effector binds to one site on the enzyme and increase or decreases the activity at another site. Allosteric regulation provides a rapid means for regulation of their activity.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
 The enzymes are responsible for the recognition and attachment of the 20 amino acids to specific tRNA.
 The template-recognition site on tRNA is a sequence of three bases called the anticodon, which recognizes a complementary sequence of three bases on mRNA.
 The protein moiety of a lipoprotein. They mediate the interaction between lipoproteins and tissues.
 Programmed cell death. The programmed cell death is tightly regulated, which plays important roles in physiologic processes. Typical morphologic changes can be observed in apoptosis. One or more endonucleases degrade DNA, leading to characteristic ladder of discrete DNA fragment on electrophoresis.
Bile salts.
 Salt form of bile acids and their conjugates. Since bile contains significant quantities of sodium and potassium and the pH is alkaline, it is assumed that the bile acids and their conjugates are in a salt form, so called “bile salts.”
 A cofactor involved in carboxylation reactions. Most enzymes that catalyze the ATP-dependent addition of CO2 to a substrate (like acetyl-CoA carboxylase) requires the cofactor biotin.
 A 32-amino-acid peptide secreted by the parathyroid. The dominant biological action of calcitonin is to mediate a lowering of serum calcium levels. The hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic effects of calcitonin are believed to be due to an inhibition of PTH-mediated calcium resorption.
Calcium-binding protein.
 1,25(OH)2-D3 stimulates gene transcription and formation of specific mRNA that codes for “calcium-binding protein”, also called “Calbindin”. Three distinct vitamin D-induced “Calbindin” have been isolated. Two of them are found exclusively inside the intestinal and kidney cells, which are actively involved in calcium translocation.
 A ubiquitous calcium sensor in eukaryotes, regulates the activities of many intracellular proteins. The binding of Ca2+ to multiple sites in calmodulin induces a major conformational change that converts it from an inactive to an active form. Activated calmodulin binds to many enzymes and modifies their activities.
 Second messenger for increased demand for energy and glucose. cAMP activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Increased cAMP levels are associated with increased protein phosphorylation. Increases in the cAMP concentration cause activation of glycogen degradation, increased fatty acid breakdown, stimulation of glycolysis in muscle, and stimulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
cAMP-dependent protein kinase,PKA.
 Most effects of cyclic AMP in eukaryotic cells are mediated by the activation of a single protein kinase. This key enzyme is called protein kinase A or cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which alters the activities of target proteins by phosphorylating specific serine or threonine residues.
 Putting a 7-methylguanosine triphosphate on the 5’ end of an mRNA molecule. Capping is involved in the recognition of mRNA and may increase the stability of the RNA by preventing the attack of 5’exonucleases.
Carnitine shuttle.
 Gets fatty acyl groups into mitochondria. Fatty acyl-CoA in the cytosol is transferred to carnitine to make fatty acyl carnitine, which is transported into mitochondria. Once inside, the fatty acyl group is transferred to CoA and the carnitine is returned to the mitochondrial membrane.
Catabolic pathway.
 Degradative metabolism. Catabolic pathways involve oxidative processes that release free energy.
Catabolic repression.
 Catabolic repression means that an intermediate in a sequence of catabolic enzyme-catalyzed reactions has ability to repress synthesis of catabolic enzymes.
Catabolite gene activator protein, CAP.
 A cAMP-binding protein that is capable of stimulating transcription by binding to certain promoter sites. It consists of two subunits, each of which contains a DNA-binding domain and a cAMP binding domain.
cDNA library.
 A library is a collection of recombinant clones. cDNA library represents the population of mRNA in a tissue. See also cDNA.
 Complementary DNA. cDNA copies from a population of cytoplasmic mRNA using enzyme reverse transcriptase, converting the cDNA single strands to double-stranded DNA. The reverse transcriptase copies RNA templates into DNA-RNA hybrids. After the RNA in these hybrids is specifically destroyed, double-stranded DNA may be produced by DNA polymerase. cDNA is a copy of an mRNA so that it contains only the exon sequences.
cis-acting element.
 This word described the regulatory interactions between two DNA sequences on the same gene. An enhancer or repressor sequence in the DNA is a cis-acting element or factor that affects the transcription of the gene.
 A stretch of DNA that carries the information for a polypeptide chain is called cistron.
 Group of cells or sequences of DNA that are identical with a single parental cell or molecule.
Coding strand.
 The coding strand of DNA has the same sequence as that of the RNA transcript except for T in place of U. It is so-called because it matches the RNA transcript that encodes the protein. The coding strand is also known as the sense strand.
 Each amino acid in a protein is specified by an mRNA sequence of three nucleotides, which is called a codon.
 A molecule bound to an enzyme and is essential for its activity. The coenzymes allow the enzyme to have functional groups that are not available from the side chains of the amino acids.
Competitive inhibition.
 Substrate and inhibitor combine at the same site and result in raising the apparent Km for the substrate.. In competitive inhibition, inhibitor can be completely displaced by a high concentration of the substrate.
 The stereochemical arrangement of atoms in a molecule. Configuration cannot be changed without breaking and reforming covalent bonds.
 Differences in rotation around bonds. The conformation of a molecular can be changed by simply rotating groups around single bonds.
Conjugated bilirubin.
 Adding glucuronic  acid molecules to bilirubin. Hepatocytes perform the process and convert bilirubin to a  water-soluble form.
Cosmid vector.
 A special class of artificially constructed E.coli plasmids that carry the λ cos site, which allows them to be packaged intoλphage particles for efficient introduction into bacteria.
Creatine kinase.
 Kinases incorporate phosphate from ATP into the substrate. Creatine kinase converts creatine to creatine phosphate, a major energy reserves in muscle.
de novo synthesis.
 Biosynthesis of nucleotides with simple materials. Purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides are synthesized via two pathways, in which the purines are built as nucleotides via phosphoribosyl intermediates, whereas the pyrimidine ring is completed to the stage of orotate before coupling to ribose.
 More than one codon can specify the same amino acid and all codons are unambiguous in that each specifies no more than one amino acid.
 Destroy the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of a protein, DNA, or RNA molecule.
DNA damage.
 DNA damage is that changes in the DNA sequence resulted from copying errors and the effects of various physical and chemical agents or carcinogens,which alters one or more nucleotides in DNA.
DNA polymerase.
 The principal synthetic enzyme, DNA polymerase, extends the primers in the 5’ to 3’ direction by catalyzing addition of deoxyribonucleoside 5’-phosphates to the primer 3’ends. Synthesis proceeds in the 5’ to 3’ direction as the template strand is read in the 3’ to 5’ direction.
DNA Replication. 
 Generation of a new copy of double-stranded DNA from a parental DNA molecule.
 Some polypeptide chains fold into two or more compact supersecondary structures. These compact globular supersecondary structures are called domains, which is one level of protein’s structures between secondary structure and tertiary structure.
 A class of small molecules capable of binding at a regulatory site. The binding of an effector changes the conformation of the enzyme so as to alter the kinetic properties of the catalytic site.
 The sequence elements that can increase the rate of transcription initiation of eukaryotic genes. Enhancers have no promoter activity of their own but they can exert their stimulatory actions over distances of several thousand base pairs.
Enterohepatic circulation.
 The primary bile acids are synthesized in the liver and the secondary bile acids are formed in the intestine. The secondary bile acids are absorbed in the intestine, returning to the liver then recycle between intestine and liver, which is known as the entero-hepatic circulation.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) .
 Epidermal growth factor can stimulates growth of many epidermal and epithelial cells.  Also see  “growth factor”.
Essential amino acid.
 The amino acids that humans can not synthesize. The human diet must contain these amino acids to support growth or maintain health.
 Regions that are retained in the mature RNA.
 Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide.  FAD is derived from vitamin riboflavin, which serves as cofactor for oxidation and reduction reactions.
 Mainly stored as triglyceride in adipose tissue. The adipose tissue releases fatty acids by the activation a hormone-sensitive lipase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the triglyceride. The fatty acids are then transported through the serum and oxidized via b oxidation in the tissues to yield energy.
Feedback inhibition .
 Feedback inhibition refers to the inhibition of the activity of an enzyme in a biosynthetic pathway by an end product of that pathway.
 Intracellular form of iron storage. It stores iron that can be used as condition requires.
 Tetrahydrofolate. A reduced form of folic acid involved intimately in one-carbon transfer reactions.
 A stretch of DNA that carries the information for a polypeptide chain is called gene or cistron.  Also see cistron.
 Total information of gene contained in a cell, an organism or a virus.
Genomic DNA library.
 Fragments of DNA from the genome of some organism. They are prepared from the total DNA of a cell line or tissue by performing partial digestion of total DNA with a restriction enzyme that cuts DNA frequently. It contains exons, introns, untranslated regions that can occur in DNA.
Glucogenic amino acid.
 The amino acid that yield pyruvate or citric cycle intermediates.
 Making glucose or glycogen from noncarbohydrate. The term used to include all mechanisms and pathways responsible for converting noncarbohydrate to glucose or glycogen.
Glycerol-a-phosphate shuttle. 
 Get electron from cytoplasmic NADH into the mitochondria so that 2 ATPs can be made by oxidation of the NADH. The enzymes of the shuttle in mitochondria is linked to the respiratory chain via a flavoprotein.
 Metabolic pathway that provides pyruvate as fuel to the citric cycle or for fat synthesis. In the absence of oxygen, lactate is produced from the pyruvate to regenerate NAD+ so that the pathway can continue to work in the absence of oxygen.
 It is an inherited metabolic disease that affects the joints and kidneys caused by hyperuricemia. Though some patients have a partial deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT),  it is not sole cause of the disease.
Growth factor.
 Small polypeptides (more properly called cytokines) that stimulate the growth of particular classes of cells. The factors have a variety of effects, including changes in the uptake of small molecules, initiation or stimulation of the cell cycle, and ultimately cell division. Examples of secreted cytokines are EGF (epidermal growth factor), PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), and insulin.
Guide RNA.
 Guide RNA is a sequence that is complementary to the correctly edited mRNA.
Hairpin structure.
 A double-helical stretch formed by base paring between neighboring complementary sequences of a single strand of DNA or RNA.
 An enzyme whose activity involved in DNA replication that relieves the strain associated with unwinding the DNA double helix during replication.
 A cofactor consisting of a porphyrin ring containing an iron atom. Heme has different functions depending on the protein that used them as a cofactor. Heme are used to carry oxygen without oxidizing it in hemoglobin and myoglobin, but in other proteins, like cytochrome P450, the heme iron produces a very reactive iron-oxygen species at the active site.
 Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying system found in erythrocytes, which transports oxygen from the lungs to all tissues of the body. The quaternary structure of hemoglobin confers its allosteric properties that adapt it to its biologic roles and permit its precise regulation.
 Responsible for the phosphorylation of glucose for entry into glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, or the pentose phosphate pathway.
 Heterogeneous nuclear RNA. They are formed in the nucleus that is a precursor to mRNA, which has both the intron and exon sequences.
Hormone response element, HRE.
 A specific DNA sequences capable of binding activated receptors.  These elements regulate the gene expression. Both steroids and peptide hormones exert their effects on transcription through HREs, but the initial reactions are different.
Housekeeping gene.
 The genes that are expressed at a reasonably constant rate and not known to be subject to regulation.
 Synthesis of a particular protein in response to a signal stimulation in cellular metabolism. For example, the synthesis of an enzyme can be induced by its substrate.
 The mosaic nature of eukaryotic genes is discontinuous. The primary transcript of a gene contains the regions that are not present in the mRNA. Regions that are removed from the primary transcript are called introns.
Isoelectric point. 
 The pH at which a molecule has a net zero charge.
 An enzyme that catalyzes an intramolecular rearrangement.
 Distinct physical forms of an enzyme with the same catalytic activity. Separation and identification of isozymes is of diagnostic value.
 When bilirubin in the blood reaches a certain concentration, hyperbilirubinemia exists and bilirubin diffuses into the tissues, which then became yellow. The condition is called jaundice.
Ketogenic amino acid.
 An amino acid that yields only acetyl-CoA. They can not yield pyruvate or tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates.
Ketone bodies.
 Acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate and acetone. At high rate of fatty acid oxidation, the liver produces considerable quantities of acetoacetate and hydroxybutyrate. The former continually undergoes spontaneous decarboxylation to yield acetone.  Ketone bodies are metabolized in muscle and brain as an energy source.
 If an enzyme follows hyperbolic kinetics, the Km is equal to the substrate concentration at which the reaction rate is half its maximal value.
 A ligase catalyzes the joining of two pieces of DNA covalently. DNA ligase joins the backbone phosphates in a phosphodiester bond.
 Lipids consist of a diverse set of hydrophobic molecules including triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and so forth.  It is soluble in organic solvents like chloroform or ether.
Malate-Aspartate shuttle.
 Gets electrons from cytoplasmic NADH into the mitochondria so that 3 ATPs can be produced by oxidation of the NADH.
Mitogen-activited-protein kinase ( MAPK).
 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is one of the most ancient signaling molecules and is involved in multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell growth, and cell death.
Messenger RNA (mRNA).
 The RNA in cytoplasm that serve as templates for protein synthesis. The primary RNA transcript is processed to mRNA by adding a cap and a tail and removing introns.
 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. NADH is an electron carrier. NAD+ accepts two electrons and a proton from substrates and ultimately transfers them to the electron transport chain to make three ATPs and H2O.
Nicotinic acid.
 A vitamin that serves as a source of the pyridine ring of NAD+ and NADP+. Dietary deficiency of nicotinic acid can lead to pellagra. Humans can synthesize nicotinic acid that derived from tryptophan.
Non-competitive inhibition.
 In non-competitive inhibition, inhibitor bind to a different domain of an enzyme, lowering the maximum velocity but with normal Km.
 A nucleoside consists of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a pentose.
 A nucleotide is a phosphate ester of a nucleoside on 3’- or 5’-carbon of ribose. Phosphorylation on 5’-carbon of ribose is the one most commonly esterified forms.
Okazaki fragment.
 The short discontinuous segments, which later are joined by DNA ligase, are called Okazaki fragment after their discoverer.
 Oncogenes are the genes capable of changing a normal cell into a transformed cells. Many oncogenes encode abnormal signal transduction proteins involved in imitating the action of polypeptide growth factor.
 The operator is a DNA segment adjacent to the structural genes. The binding of the repressor to the operator prevents the transcription of these genes.
 A collection of prokaryotic structural genes that are present in a linear array and whose expression is controlled by the same regulatory region of the DNA. This arrangement allows simple control over the expression of proteins that are all needed for a common job. It should be noted that an operon includes both operator and its associated structural genes.
 Osteomalacia is caused by vitamin D deficiency in the adult, which leads to softening and weakening of bones.
 When something is oxidized, something else must become reduced. With removal of an electron, ferrous is oxidized to ferric ion. So oxidation is a process with the loss of electrons.
Oxidative phosphorylation.
 The process in which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to oxygen by a series of electron carriers.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) .
 Parathyroid hormone, an 84-amino acid-containing protein, is secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid gland. The biological actions of PTH are related to regulate calcium metabolism.
Pentose phosphate pathway.
 An alternative route for the metabolism of glucose. The pathway generates both NADPH for reductive syntheses and ribose residues for nucleotide biosynthesis.
Peptide bond.
 The bond that the a-carboxyl group of one amino acid is joined to the a-amino group of another amino acid by an amide bond in a polypeptide.
Phospholipase C.
 The activation of the phospholipase C is mediated by G protein.  The active form of the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a membrane-bounded substrate to form two second messengers, diacylglyceride and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Diacylglyceride is capable of activating protein kinase C. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate is effective for the release of calcium from intracellular calcium pool.
 Independently replicating circular pieces of DNA whose natural function is to confer antibiotic resistance to the host cell.
Platelet-derived growth factor.
 Platelet-derived growth factor can stimulates growth of messenchymal and glial cells.  Also see “growth factor”.
Point mutation.
 It is cause by a single base change of DNA gemone, which in turn results in a change in the messenger RNA, a structural abnormality of gene expression.
Polycistronic mRNA.
 A single mRNA that encodes more than one separately translated protein is referred to as a polycistronic mRNA, which contains multiple independent translation start and stop codons for each cistron.
Polypeptide chain.
 Many amino acids joined by peptide bonds form a polypeptide chain, which has two different ends, i.e. N-terminal and C-terminal respectively.
 An mRNA molecule with many ribosomes bound to it. Many ribosomes can translate the same mRNA simultaneously.
Primary transcript.
 Primary transcript is the original unmodified RNA product corresponding to a transcription unit.
 Primase catalyzes polymerization of ribonucleoside 5’-triphosphates to form RNA primers. The sequence of monomer addition is dictated by a template strand of DNA and the chain lengths of primers are usually 10-50 nucleotides.
 Promoter is a region of DNA involved in binding of RNA polymerase to initiate transcription.
Prosthetic group.
 Many proteins require tightly bound, specific nonpolypeptide units for their biological activities. Such a unit is called a prosthetic group.
 An enzyme that hydrolyzes the amide bonds in a protein. Most proteases recognize a specific type of amino acid side chain and cleave the protein at specific points.
 Normal cellular genes with the potential to become oncogenes are called proto-oncogenes or cellular oncogenes. These genes were conserved in a wide range of eukaryotic cells. The conserved sequences were important components of normal cells and their products are believed to play important roles in normal differentiation and other cellular process.
Pyridoxal phosphate.
 All transamination reactions require the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate. The important functional groups of the coenzyme are the aldehyde group, which can form a Schiff base with the a-amino group of an amino acid and facilitate transamination.
Rate-limiting enzyme.
 Enzymes catalyzing committed steps in unidirectional anabolic and catabolic pathways, which act as natural governors of metabolic flow and represent the most efficient regulatory intervention.
 All of receptors are proteins that can selectively bind specific molecule and initiate their biologic effects.
Recombinant DNA.
 Information exchanging by breaking and joining chromosomal DNA. Recombination can occur between genes with similar sequences or between genes with different sequences.
 Chemically, reduction is defined as the gain of electrons. NAD+ is reduced to NADH. It follows that reduction is accompanied by oxidation of an electron donor.
 Generation of a new copy of double-stranded DNA from a parental DNA molecule.
 In a polypeptide chain, an amino acid unit is called a residue.
Respiratory chain.
 Exists in the mitochondria, consists of a number of redox carriers. The respiratory chain provides most of the energy captured in metabolism.
Restriction endonuclease.
 The classes of endonucleases cut DNA at specific DNA sequences within the molecule.
Reverse transcriptase.
 An RNA-directed DNA polymerase in retroviruses; capable of making DNA complementary to an RNA.
Reverse transcription.
 RNA-directed synthesis of DNA, catalyzed by reverse transcriptase.
 Complex cytoplasmic particles each consisting of two ribonucleoprotein subunits. Translation of mRNA occurs on it.
 A class of RNAs that meet all the classic criteria for definition as enzymes. These catalytic RNAs catalyze highly specific hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in RNAs and are important in the processing events involved in maturation of pre-mRNA.
 Vitamin D deficiency in childhood produces rickets characterized by low plasma calcium and phosphorus levels and by poorly mineralized bone with associated skeletal deformities.
RNA editing.
 RNA 编辑
 The information content of some mRNA is altered following transcription by process other than RNA splicing.
RNA Polymerase.
 RNA Polymerase is an enzyme that synthesizes RNA using a DNA template.
 Ribosomal RNA.  Structural components of ribosomes. There are several discrete size classes of rRNA, usually referred to by their sedimentation coefficients as 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and28S in eucaryotic cells.
S-adenosyl methionine, SAM.
 SAM is a major donor of one-carbon unit at the methyl oxidation state, which is formed from methyl-THF and homocysteine by a vitamin B12-dependent reaction.
Salting out.
 The solubility of the proteins is lowered at high salt concentrations, so-called the “salting out”. It can be used to fractionate proteins because the dependence of solubility on salt concentration differs from one protein to another.
Salvage pathway.
 The pathways that purines and pyrimidines derived from nucleic acid catabolism react with PRPP and form the corresponding ribonucleotides. Corresponding deoxyribonucleotides are produced by reduction of the ribonucleoside diphosphates, using NADPH as the reducing agent.
Semiconservative replication.
 DNA replication follows a law called semiconservative replication, i.e., one of the strands of each daughter DNA molecule is newly synthesized, whereas the other is passed on unchanged from the parent DNA molecule.
Sigma factor.
 Sigma factor is the subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase needed for initiation. It is the major influence on selection of binding sites (promoters).
Signal transduction.
 The process by which an extracellular signal is amplified and converted to a cellular response.  For example, growth factors act on the cell cycle and mitosis via transmembrane signal transduction.
 Small nuclear RNA. They have roles in RNA processing but are not directly involved in protein synthesis.
 Splicing describes the removal of introns and joining of exons in RNA; thus introns are spliced out,  while exons are spliced together.
 Reagent in a catalytic reaction by an enzyme.
 A synthase is an enzyme that makes something but doesn’t directly require the hydrolysis of ATP to do it.
 A synthetase requires the hydrolysis of ATP to make the reaction go.
 Specialized structure at the ends of chromosomes that allows replication of the extreme 5’ ends of the DNA without loss of genetic information.
Template strand.
 The template strand, also known as the antisense strand, is one strand that the genetic information resides in the sequence of nucleotides in the double-stranded DNA molecules. This is the strand of DNA that is copied during nucleic acid synthesis.
 Terminator is a sequence of DNA , represented at the end of the transcript, that causes RNA polymerase to terminate transcription.
Thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP.
 It is derived from the vitamin thiamine, which is required for decarboxylation of a-keto acids and also involved in some transfer reactions of aldehyde derivatives.
 Enzymes that catalyze topologic changes of DNA are called topoisomerases, which can relax or insert supercoils. Topoisomer of DNA can be interconverted only by cutting one or both DNA strands and then rejoining them.
trans-acting factor.
 Trans-acting factor is used to describe the effect of a product from one gene on the transcription of another gene.
 The amino acid are degraded via reaction of transamination, in which the a-amino group is transferred to a acceptor a-ketoacid with production of the a-keto derivative of the amino acid.
 The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template. RNA polymerase catalyzes the synthesis and uses the antisense strand as a template.
 Transferrin carries two ferric ions and transfer them to cells having receptors for transferrin. Association with transferrin diminishes the potential toxicity of free iron and directs iron to where it is required in the body.
 The synthesis of protein directed by the nucleotides sequence of an mRNA. Translation occurs on ribosomes.
 Also called triacylglycerol. It is formed by glycerol molecule and three fatty acid chains, which attached through ester linkages.
 Transfer RNA. They serve as adaptor for the translation of the information in the sequence of nucleotides of the mRNA into specific amino acids.
 A redox carrier presented in the respiratory chain, which is also called coenzyme Q. It exists in mitochondria, linking the flavoproteins to cytochrome b.
 Allow protons back into the mitochondria without making any ATP.
 Upstream identifies sequence proceeding in the opposite direction from expression; for example, the bacterial promoter is upstream of the transcription unit, the initiation codon is upstream of coding region.
Urea cycle.
 The pathway that excess ammonia produced by deamination is excreted after conversion to urea is called urea cycle. Since urea synthesis converts toxic ammonia to nontoxic urea, the defects in urea synthesis result in ammonia intoxication.
 Something that can be used to introduce recombinant DNA into a host organism. An insert is the piece of DNA that has been placed into the vector.
Vitamin B12. 
 This vitamin is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms. In animals, it is conserved in the liver. The absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestine is mediated by receptor sites,  i.e., intrinsic factor. In clinic, deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to anemia.
Vitamin D.
 Cholesterol is the precursor of vitamin D. By various metabolic changes in the body, cholesterol is converted into calcitiol, which plays an essential role in the control of calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
 An amino acid exhibits dipolar ions (Zwitterion) rather than un-ionized molecules at suitable pH. In the dipolar form of an amino acid, the amino group is protonated and the carboxyl group is dissociated so that a molecule has zero charge.
ρ factor.
 Rho factor is a protein involved in assisting E.coli RNA polymerase to terminate transcription at certain (rho-dependent) sites.

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