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2010-1-15
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美国的银行业系统

编辑:语际翻译     2010-1-15         转载请注明来自  语际翻译公司 http://www.scientrans.com

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  The Commercial Banking System Today in the United States

  Several of the characteristics of American banking just discussed carry over into today's commercial banking system. Prominent among these is the dual-chartering system; that is, we continue to have commercial bank charters issued at two different levels of government. National banks receive their charters from the Comptroller of Currency~. Any national bank must have somewhere in its corporate title the word "national". Thus, for example, "Wells Fargo Bank, National Association" indicates that this bank has a federal charter. All national banks must be members of the Federal Reserve System.

 

  Most banks, however, receive their charters from the appropriate agency of their respective state. They are under the supervision of their state's banking authority. However, state-chartered commercial banks may elect to become members of the Federal Reserve System, but this not mandatory for them as it is for national banks. If state-chartered banks~ elect membership in the Federal Reserve System, they come under the supervision of two banking authorities, state and national.

  Thus, the American commercial banking system is comprised of two types of banks: the member banks of the Federal Reserve System which are national banks and those state-chartered banks electing membership; and nonmember state-chartered banks. Today' s banking system in the United States is comprised of more than 14,000 individual banks. Of this number, well under 50 percent are member banks of the Federal Reserve System——only 5,788 commercial banks out of a total of 14,633, or roughly 40 percent. These member banks, however, commanded the largest share of commercial banks resources, about three-fourths as of June 30, 1976. They held over three-fourths of deposits subject to check, $202,144 million as of the same date, which represented some 67 percent of our total money supply.

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